Calendar – a contractual, accepted in a given community or culture, time calculation. It divides time into recurring periods, usually related to nature cycles. The name comes from the Roman word Kalenda or, according to other sources, from the Latin callendarium.
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Currently, the most popular calendar in the world is the Gregorian calendar – introduced on 15 October 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII and based on the length of the tropical year.
Calendars are divided into different types, depending on:
1) the method of determining the length of the year in relation to the length and number of months (by referring to the multiple phases of the Moon, by referring to the apparent movement of the Sun in the sky in the background of Zodiac, or by combining one with the other). It is also connected with the division of the month into smaller units, weeks or decades. print calendar
According to this, the most popular criterion of calendar classification, calendars are therefore divided into:
solar (solar), e.g:
Christian calendars – e.g. Gregorian (for western churches such as Roman Catholicism, Protestantism and some others) and Julian (for eastern churches such as Greek Catholicism, Orthodoxy and some others), Mayan Calendar, anztec calendar, Iranian calendar, the french republican calendar, the Swedish calendar, Slavic calendar.
lunar (lunar), e.g: the ancient Greek calendar, Roman Calendar, the Babylonian calendar, Jewish calendar, Muslim calendar, Slavic calendar. Moonlight-sunny, e.g: the Egyptian calendar, Indian calendars, e.g. the Indian national calendar, the Tamil calendar, the Bengali calendar, the Jains calendar and related calendars: Buddhist calendars: Ceylonese, Burmese, Thai, Cambodian, Laotian) and others, Java Calendar, the Chinese calendar and its derived Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, Mongolian, Tuvian or Tibetan calendars, Slavic calendar.
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(2) how to determine the start of the time (era) calculation:
linear – years are still counted from some historical event of the past, e.g. from the birth of Christ (Gregorian calendar), from the escape of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina (Muslim calendar), or recently (e.g. from the date of the last ruler’s ascension to the throne, such as the Japanese calendar, the birth of Kim Ir Sen – the Jet’s calendar);
Cyclical – where years are counted in repeated cycles, e.g. 12-year, 60-year cycles, etc. (e.g. Chinese calendar, Mayan calendar, Bali calendar);
(3) how to determine the start of a new day (sunrise, sunset, moonrise, north, south) and how to calculate the length of day and hour (fixed hour, variable hour).